Jay Lyman, an open-source analyst for The 451 Group notes the language differences in a global development circles, but adds, "There is also the issue of cultural differences, which must always be considered in such a community," he says.
Still, from where Berkus sits, asynchronous communication has one disadvantage: Conversations which require a lot of back-and-forth can take days instead of hours. "This causes open-source developers to either fall back on synchronous [methods]--chat, conferences--or to develop a workstyle in which they are constantly working on several tasks in parallel."
Control and Motivation Problems--and Solutions
Another challenge common to both open-source and outsourcing scenarios is control, Lyman says. Executives at open-source vendors have the challenge of motivating and steering individuals and groups that are not necessarily motivated primarily by money. "I think there is a similar challenge in a global outsourcing development community, wherein there is less or no direct contact with members of that community and control is more difficult. Open-source communities have also illustrated how too much control can breed discontentment or stifle innovation," says Lyman.
Stormy Peters, executive director of the GNOME Foundation, says that the lessons the outsourcing developer community could learn from open source apply to any virtual team -- starting with the preferred toolset. Peters explains, "Open source software projects tend to rely on e-mail, mailing lists and IRC (Internet Relay Chat). This gives them a lot of advantages not available to teams that work primarily by meeting, phone calls and e-mail." By using mailing lists and IRC, says Peters, open-source software projects gain:
- Transparency. All decisions and the discussions that led to them are public. Who gets what responsibility and why is also visible.
- Meritocracy. Everyone knows who is doing what and how well they are doing.
- Empowerment. Everyone has a voice. Anyone can join IRC or the mailing list.
- History. The entire project history and status are available to anyone.
- Fewer time zone issues. Since the history is in IRC and mailing lists, people can catch up and join in when they are awake, whenever and where ever that may be.
- Language and culture issues. "I think e-mail is less of a language issue than voice can be," Peters says. "I also think the community is very understanding of people who are working hard to express themselves well in English, perhaps because many, many in the community are working in their second language."
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